- TIES Overview
- Our Mission
- Our Members and Partners
- Our Team
- Project Summaries
- Annual Reports
- Our Story
- What is Ecotourism?
- TIES Lifetime Achievement Award
- Employment Opportunities
- Frequently Asked Questions
- Contact Us
- TIES Overview
- Find Members
- Certification and Standards
- Climate Change and Tourism
- Indigenous Knowledge
- Job Board
- Get Involved
- Ecotourism and Sustainable Tourism Conference
- Opportunities for Professionals
- Opportunities for Travelers
- Opportunities for Students
- Become a Sponsor
- Become an ecoDestinations Sponsor
- Sponsor TIES ecoAuction
- Connect to us
- TIES News
- Industry News
- Member News and Projects
- Browse by Region
- Newsletter Archive
- eNewsletter Sign Up
- For Members
ecoDestinations - Botswana
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechunaland, Botswana adopted its new name upon independence in 1966. Over 40 years of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment from the diamond industry, has made Botswana one of Africa’s most stable economies. The country is also well known for its extensive conservation practices, nature reserves, and incredible safari opportunities.
Roughly 70% of Botswana is comprised of the Kalahari, making much of the territory sparsely populated and too arid to sustain any agricultural industry other than cattle. However, other regions, such as the Okavango Delta and Chobe National Park, consist of lush waterways.
45% of its land area is protected in the form of National Parks and game reserves. BirdLife International has named 12 different areas in Botswana as Important Bird Areas (IBAs). Despite the lack of endemism, Botswana is among the most popular countries for safaris because of its spectacular abundance of wildlife.
Threats to biodiversity include mining, rangeland degradation, bushfires, fencing, uncontrolled tourism, and poaching. Climate change is emerging as one of the biggest threats to the Okavango Delta as it disrupts the seasonal flooding of the plains.
The largest ethnic group in Botswana is the Setwsana, comprising of 79% of the population, followed by the Kalanga, Basarwa, a small number of people of European-descent, and Zimbabwean immigrants. The San, or Bushmen, who maintain a traditional hunting/gathering culture are one of the country’s most persecuted groups.
The San are known for their extensive knowledge of medicinal plants and spiritual healing. Elaborate dancing rituals in which healers contact ancestor spirits to drive out bad blood in the community, are an important part of their society.
According to Survival International, in 1997, 2002, and 2005 the Botswana government forced the Bushmen from their ancestral home in the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. Homes were dismantled, schools and health services were shut down, their water supply was destroyed and their lives were threatened. International rights groups argue that the government forced the San off their lands in order to make way for the diamond industry.
In 2006, the San won a landmark case that their eviction from the reserve was unlawful, that they continue to face ill-treatment and that they have the right to return home. Unfortunately they still face incredible amounts of discrimination having been banned from hunting and forced to apply for permits to enter the reserve.
UNESCO World Heritage Sites:
Tsodilo: Here is one of the highest concentrations of rock art in the world, comprising of 4,500 different paintings of geographic shapes, human-like figures, and animals with exaggerated body proportions. Two of the most famous images are the rhino polychromes and the Eland panel. Excavations have also revealed seashell beads from the Atlantic, copper jewelry from the Congo, and glass beads from Asia. Archaeological research estimates that Tsodilo has been inhabited for the past 100,000 years. Today, the original inhabitants, the San and the Hambukushu, regard Tsodilo as a sacred place of ancient spirits.
Okavango Delta: The largest inland delta in the world, Okavango Delta is home to some of the world’s most endangered species of large mammals, such as the cheetah, white rhinoceros, black rhinoceros, African wild dog, and lion. Despite the relative aridness of Botswana, Okavango has permanent crystal clear waters from which large herds of zebras, elephants, and buffalo drink from and play in. It was recently named UNESCO World Heritage’s 1000th site.
Chobe National Park: The savannas and floodplains of Chobe National Park are best known for its spectacular wildlife populations. Its elephant population numbers over 50,000, the highest concentration in Africa. On a sunset cruise along the Chobe River you’ll see yawning hippos and herds of buffalo. Other types of wildlife include wildebeests, impalas, zebras, giraffes, cormorants, and kingfishers. Sights of lions, hyenas, and cheetahs are common as well.
Makgadikgadi Pans National Park: For most of the year, this region is extremely arid and desolate, but when the rains come, the two large salt pans – Sowa and Ntwetwe – flood and attract an astonishing amount of wildlife. Then the salt pans are transformed into a powder-blue lake that bring in up to hundreds of thousands of flamingos. Some baobab trees grow in a few areas and one is of particular historical note. Believed to be between 3,000 -4,000 years old, it is the only landmark for hundreds of miles around and was used by Africa’s most famous explorer, Dr. David Livingstone, as a way to navigate.
Gcwihaba Caves: Located in a remote area, the caves are a fascinating underground labyrinth of caverns, pits, and linked passages. While some are was large as 10 m (32 ft) with impressive displays of stalagmites and stalactites, others are so small that you would have to squeeze or even crawl through them. The remoteness of the caves have allowed some interesting species to evolve, such as the Namaqua fig, a tree whose roots create beautiful curtains inside the caves. Then, on the tree itself, resides the endemic Ruepels Parrot. Late Stone Age tools and burnt ostrich eggshells suggest the caves were inhabited by nomadic peoples thousands of years ago.
Moremi Game Reserve: Concerned by the uncontrolled hunting and cattle farming encroachment on their ancestral lands, Moremi Game Reserve is the first reserve in Africa that was established by local residents, the Batawana people. The region has spectacular game viewing and bird watching, including over 400 species of birds.
Tswapong Hills: The old capital of the Bamangwato people, Tswapong Hills is an important historical site, containing artifacts from the Middle Stone Age and up to the 19th century. It once housed 300,000 people including European missionaries and hunters. The most outstanding structures are the remains of the London Missionary Society Church.
Botswana Tourism Organisation
The Botswana Tourism Organisation is a premier tourism promotions organization, full of great resources on destinations, hotels and tour operators, and ecotourism certifications.
Share your #ecoDestinations story!
How have you been inspired by the power of ecotourism? Voice your opinion on ecotourism in your destination, seek out like-minded travelers, and ask questions about destinations of your dreams! Join us on Facebook, follow #ecoDestinations on Twitter and spread the word so your friends can support ecotourism while learning about amazing destinations around the world!
TIES Traveler Membership
"I am a member of TIES since 2002 and proud to support this important and worthwhile cause."
- Susan Brook, Chicago, USA
TIES Traveler Members receive special member emails delivering tips on traveling responsibly and advice for conscious travelers about ecotourism destinations and experiences. You will be able to benefit from the rich collective knowledge of TIES global network, and gain invaluable insights - from useful travel tips to best practice stories. Join our network of 14,000 members for free, and start learning more about why and how your travel choice makes a difference!
To be a part of the ecotourism movement, become a TIES member Sign up now